BMI - Body Mass Index









BMI, formerly called the Quetelet index, is a measure for indicating nutritional status in adults. 

It is defined as a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of the person’s height in metres (kg/m2). 


For example, an adult who weighs 70 kg and whose height is 1.75 m will have a BMI of 22.9.

70 (kg)/1.75 * 1.75 (m2) = 22.9 BMI

For adults over 20 years old, BMI falls into one of the following categories.

Overweight and obesity lead to adverse metabolic effects on joints, muscles, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance. 

Risks of coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke and type 2 diabetes mellitus increase steadily with increasing body mass index (BMI), a measure of weight relative to height. 

Raised body mass index also increases the risk of cancer of the breast, colon, prostate, endometrium, kidney and gall bladder. 

Mortality rates increase with increasing degrees of overweight, as measured by body mass index. 

To achieve optimum health, the range of 21 to 25 kg/m2...... 

while the goal for individuals should be to maintain BMI in the range 20 to 25. 

There is increased risk of co-morbidities for body mass index 25.0 to 29.9, and moderate to severe risk of co-morbidities for body mass index greater than 30.


Assortment of fresh fruits and vegetables

 Table - Nutritional status

BMINutritional status

Below 20

Underweight

20 - 25

Normal weight

25 – 30

Pre-obesity

30.0–34.9

Obesity class I

35.0–39.9

Obesity class II

Above 40

Obesity class III



The BMI ranges are based on the effect excessive body fat has on disease and death and are reasonably well related to adiposity. 

BMI was developed as a risk indicator of disease; as BMI increases, so does the risk for some diseases. 

Some common conditions related to overweight and obesity include: 
premature death, 
cardiovascular diseases, 
high blood pressure, 
osteoarthritis, 
some cancers and diabetes.

BMI is also recommended for use in children and adolescents. 

In children, BMI is calculated as for adults and then compared with z-scores or percentiles. 

During childhood and adolescence the ratio between weight and height varies with sex and age, so the cut-off values that determine the nutritional status of those aged 0–19 years are gender- and age-specific. 

The cut-off points of the 2006 BMI-for-age reference for children aged 0–5 years for the diagnosis of overweight and obesity were set as the 97th and the 99th percentile, respectively. 

For those aged 5–19 years, overweight is defined as a BMI-for-age value over +1 SD and obesity as a BMI-for-age value over +2 SD.


Your BMI result

Underweight

Being underweight could be a sign that you're not eating enough or that you may be ill. If you're underweight, your GP can help. Find out more in underweight adults.

Healthy weight

Keep up the good work. For tips on maintaining a healthy weight, check out our food and diet and fitness sections.

Overweight

The best way to lose weight is through a combination of diet and exercise. The BMI calculator will give you a personal calorie allowance to help you achieve a healthy weight safely.

Obese

The best way to lose weight is through a combination of dietand exercise and in some cases medication. Contact your GP for help and advice.

Ethnicity and diabetes risk

Black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups (BMEs) have a higher risk of developing some chronic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes.

BME adults with a:

  • BMI of 23 or more are at increased risk
  • BMI of 27.5 or more are at high risk

Why waist size matters

Measuring your waist is a good way to check you're not carrying too much fat around your stomach, which can raise your risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes and stroke.

You can have a healthy BMI and still have excess tummy fat – meaning you're still at risk of developing these diseases.

To measure your waist:

  1. find the bottom of your ribs and the top of your hips
  2. wrap a tape measure around your waist midway between these points
  3. breathe out naturally before taking the measurement

Regardless of your height or BMI, you should try to lose weight if your waist is:

  • 94cm (37ins) or more (men)
  • 80cm (31.5ins) or more (women)

You are at very high risk and you should contact your GP if your waist is:

  • 102cm (40ins) or more (men)
  • 88cm (34ins) or more (women)

Children's BMI

For children and young people aged two to 18, the BMI calculator takes into account age and gender as well as height and weight.

Obese children are thought to be at increased risk of a variety of health conditions, and they're also more likely to be overweight or obese as adults.

The BMI calculator works out if a child or young person is:

A child's BMI is expressed as a "centile" to show how their BMI compares to children who took part in national surveys. For example, a girl on the 75th centile is heavier than 75 out of 100 other girls her age.

Measuring waist size is not routinely advised for children because it doesn't take their height into account.

If you're concerned about your child's weight, contact your GP who may be able to refer you to your local healthy lifestyle programme for children, young people and families.

Limitations of the BMI

Your BMI can tell you if you're carrying too much weight but it can't tell if you're carrying too much fat. The BMI can't tell the difference between excess fat, muscle, or bone.

The adult BMI does not take into account age, gender or muscle mass. This means that: 

  • very muscular adults and athletes may be classed "overweight" or "obese" even though their body fat is low   
  • adults who lose muscle as they get older may fall in the "healthy weight" range even though they may be carrying excess fat

However, the BMI is a relatively straightforward and convenient method of assessing someone's weight. 

Your can use your BMI result as a starting point for further discussion with your doctor about your weight and your general health.


If you're suffering from an eating disorder, the BMI calculator results do not apply. 
Please seek further advice from your doctor.


References ........

You can calculate BMI using below website.......





Healthy but not tasty 




To be eaten raw ....500 gm to 800 gms... 


10 portions a day......each portion is 80 gm


 So over 3/4 kg or more daily........


This contains all vitamins, nutrients, minerals, protein, essential fat and carbohydrate - for good digestion and health....




Forget 5-a-day, think 10-a-day! New fruit and veg advice

Your parents and teachers have probably told you to eat up your fruit and veg.

Or you may have even heard the advice we should eat five different fruits or vegetables every day.

Well new research carried out by Imperial College London thinks we should be trying to eat more like 10 different fruit and vegetables every day.

And if you're a fan of potatoes, some bad news for you.......




Deep-frying spoils all natural healthy benefits of vegetables and fruits

Always half-fry vegetables for beneficial effects on health









A quick fix for good health?

Eating a diet rich in some antioxidants has been shown to protect against the development of coronary heart disease, strokes, some cancers and age-related diseases. 

Supplements: a waste of time?

The majority of clinical trials to date have found no evidence that taking individual or combinations of antioxidants can offer healthy people protection against disease.



          Taking too many vitamin supplements can lead to this unwanted side effect





Luckily nature has provided us with a balanced package of antioxidants.

There is certainly no evidence to suggest that eating plenty of fruit and vegetables can be bad for you.






Taking many vitamin supplements can lead to unwanted side effect

https://health.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/industry/taking-too-many-vitamin-supplements-can-lead-to-this-unwanted-side-effect/62079228


The pills could irritate the oesophagus, or allow some stomach acid to creep back up the oesophagus when it enters the stomach.

The pills could irritate the oesophagus, or allow some stomach acid to creep back up the oesophagus when it enters the stomach.
There's no definitive evidence that they confer health benefits.
Eating plenty of fruit and vegetables, and whole grains, should help to regain the extra nutrients that the body needs……..it may be a good idea to stop taking the supplements altogether.
Liquid vitamins could be an alternative. It will be easier to swallow and minimise irritation.



Eat a rainbow

Catherine Collins, principle dietician at St George's Hospital NHS Trust, recommends eating more plant foods such as vegetables, fruits, pulses and grains, which are all rich in dietary antioxidants and also a good source of fibre.


  




Healthy foods  








A woman eating spinach

No Super Food or Magic Bullet to solve dietary needs

A big problem is our focus on individual nutrients or ingredients. 


This takes the focus away from fresh produce and towards processed foods. 


Our fixation with specific vitamins or mineral also creates an environment in which manufacturers can add nutrients to food and make health claims for those foods. 

Nutritionist Stanton is yet to find an Australian deficient in the sort of nutrients that go into fortified cereals 

“Then it achieves a health halo and it sells, and you see this with heavily sweetened breakfast cereals. Stanton points out that she is yet to find an Australian deficient in the sort of nutrients that go into fortified cereals.
 

http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20161124-why-there-is-no-such-thing-as-a-superfood 


In general, same age-old dietary wisdom still holds: lots of fresh fruit and vegetables, whole grains, small amounts of protein, particularly fish and seafood. 













Which foods can improve your gut bacteria?



While the homemade foods and products made by traditional methods contained a wide array of bacteria, some of the commercial products contained barely any.


"Typically, with commercial varieties, they would be subjected to pasteurisation after preparation to ensure their safety and extend their shelf life, which can kill off the bacteria, whereas that wouldn't be the case for the homemade varieties," says Dr Cotter.


So if you want to try fermented foods to improve your gut health ................................it's best look for products that have been made using traditional preparation and processing..................or make them yourself, to ensure you're getting the healthy bacteria you're after.


Jerusalem artichokes

Jerusalem artichokes are rich in prebiotic fibre





Avocado






The dangerous myth of vitamin pills/ Anti-oxidants....

Far from being the elixir of life, antioxidants could send you to an early grave



http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20161208-why-vitamin-supplements-could-kill-you


(Credit: Alamy)


“The idea that antioxidant [supplementation] is a miracle cure is completely redundant,” says Enriquez.

Antioxidants have a dark side. Without free radicals, cells would continue to grow and divide uncontrollably

We now know that free radicals are often used as molecular messengers that send signals from one region of the cell to another. 

Without them, cells would continue to grow and divide uncontrollably. There’s a word for this: cancer.

We would also be more prone to infections from outside. When under stress from an unwanted bacterium or virus, free radicals are naturally produced in higher numbers, acting as silent klaxons to our immune system. 

In response, those cells at the vanguard of our immune defense – macrophages and lymphocytes – start to divide and scout out the problem. If it is a bacterium, they will engulf it like Pac-Man eating a blue ghost.

It is trapped, but it is not yet dead. To change that, free radicals are once again called into action. Inside the immune cell, they are used for what they are infamous for: to damage and to kill. The intruder is torn apart.

From start to finish, a healthy immune response depends on free radicals being there for us, within us.







How exercise in old age prevents the immune system from declining






Doing lots of exercise in older age can prevent the immune system from declining and protect people against infections, scientists say.


They followed 125 long-distance cyclists, some now in their 80s, and found they had the immune systems of 20-year-olds.


Prof Norman Lazarus, 82, of King's College London, who took part in and co-authored the research, said: 


"If exercise was a pill, everyone would be taking it.


"It has wide-ranging benefits for the body, the mind, for our muscles and our immune system."




Steve Harridge, professor of physiology at King's College London, said: "Being sedentary goes against evolution because humans are designed to be physically active.


Do it for health, because it's sociable, and enjoy the freedom it gives you."

He said: "I cycle for a sense of wellbeing and to enjoy our wonderful countryside."



Eating slowly helps lose weight: 

chewing properly & drink more water...to eat less..


 http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2531113/Eating-slowly-DOES-help-lose-weight-People-chew-food-properly-sip-water-consume-nearly-100-fewer-calories-meal.html


A study has found that eating slowly and having smaller bites makes us feel less hungry an hour afterwards than if we wolf down food.


People who ate slowly also drank more, which helped them feel fuller, the researchers said.


If you're trying to lose weight, eating slowly and more mindfully can help you eat less and lose weight. 

Recent research has proven that it takes time for the brain to realize that it is no longer hungry. 

When you consume your food quickly, your brain may fail to register how much you've actually eaten and may cause you to end up eating too much. 

Many studies have shown that eating more slowly and more mindfully can help you eat less and manage your weight.

Incorporate some easy ways to slow yourself down during meal time to help manage your weight more effectively.



Ultra-processed foods 'make you eat more'





 Ultra-processed foods lead people to eat more and put on weight"


"It's suggestive that this may be playing a role in the larger population."


the "obesity epidemic"..........ultra-processed food more palatable, ate more quickly and consequently more - 

possibly because it took longer for them to feel full.


"A very interesting outcome of the study is the cost-per-energy: 

the ultra-processed diet was considerably cheaper than the unprocessed control diet, and this is likely to have implications from a public health point of view."



Ultra-processed food linked to early death


Kids eating icecream  

Ultra-processed foods - such as chicken nuggets, burgers, ice cream and breakfast cereals - have been linked to early death and poor health, scientists say.

Their studies suggesting ultra-processed foods lead to overeating.





Overweight or obese make people ill and sick.



Fat cells in adipose tissue

Why is being obese a risk?


The more overweight you are, the more fat you're carrying, the less fit you are and the lower your lung capacity. 

This means it is a bigger struggle to get oxygen into the blood and around the body. 

This impacts on the heart and blood flow too.

"Because people are more overweight, they also have a demand for more oxygen. 

So that means their system is actually undergoing greater pressure," says Prof Naveed, from the University of Glasgow.

During an infection like coronavirus, this can be serious.

"Eventually the obese body becomes overwhelmed by the lack of oxygen getting to the major organs," says Dr Dyan Sellayah, from the University of Reading.

That is one reason why overweight and obese people in intensive care are more likely to need assistance with breathing and support with kidney function.

The ability of the body to fight off the virus - known as the immune response - is not as good in people who are obese.

That's due to inflammation driven by immune cells called macrophages interfere with how our cells respond to infection.

According to scientists, this can lead to a 'cytokine storm' causes excess inflammation and serious harm.

This may explain why people from Asia, African and ethnic minority backgrounds (BAME), who have more of this type of tissue, "have elevated rates of diabetes, and may be more vulnerable to the virus," Dr Sellayah says.


Overweight man

Obesity often comes with other health issues, such as a weak heart, lungs, kidney or type 2 diabetes.

Blood clots are also more likely to develop, but it's not clear why.

What about hospital care?

There can be challenges when it comes to managing patients with obesity, more difficult to intubate them, and to scan them because of weight limits.

What can I do to be healthy?

The best way is to eat a healthy, balanced diet and exercise regularly.

Fast walking, cycling are good options, even with social distancing measures in force.

Eat slowly and eat healthy.


As well as putting people at risk of complications from coronavirus, being obese is also linked to a higher risk of other conditions - from heart disease, diabetes and cancer, to problems during pregnancy and joint pain.


Boy standing on the scales



Supplements: a waste of time?


The majority of clinical trials to date have found no evidence that taking individual or combinations of antioxidants can offer healthy people protection against disease.




A quick fix for good health?

Eating a diet rich in some antioxidants has been shown to protect against the development of coronary heart disease, strokes, some cancers and age-related diseases. 



          Taking too many vitamin supplements can lead to this unwanted side effect




Luckily nature has provided us with a balanced package of antioxidants.

There is certainly no evidence to suggest that eating plenty of fruit and vegetables can be bad for you.






Taking many vitamin supplements can lead to unwanted side effect

https://health.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/industry/taking-too-many-vitamin-supplements-can-lead-to-this-unwanted-side-effect/62079228


The pills could irritate the oesophagus, or allow some stomach acid to creep back up the oesophagus when it enters the stomach.

The pills could irritate the oesophagus, or allow some stomach acid to creep back up the oesophagus when it enters the stomach.
There's no definitive evidence that they confer health benefits.
Eating plenty of fruit and vegetables, and whole grains, should help to regain the extra nutrients that the body needs……..it may be a good idea to stop taking the supplements altogether.
Liquid vitamins could be an alternative. It will be easier to swallow and minimise irritation.


Vitamin D was no better than placebo for lowering the risk of heart disease and cancer.

Vitamin D pills, fish oil no guard against cancer or heart diseases

Vitamin D and fish oil supplements do not lower the risk of heart disease and cancer in healthy adults, says a study. 

Vitamin D was no better than placebo for lowering the risk of heart disease and cancer. There were similar conclusions for omega-3 fatty acid supplements, which people consume as fish oil.
https://health.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/industry/vitamin-d-pills-fish-oil-no-guard-against-cancer-or-heart-diseases/66674983





Fish oil pills 'no benefit' for diabetes / cancer






"This is really expensive stuff. 
If somebody's at risk of diabetes, there are much better things to spend money on, like a physical activity. 

Douglas Twenefour, deputy head of care at Diabetes UK, said: 

"Eating a healthy, varied diet is incredibly important, - including fruits, vegetables, wholegrains, yoghurt and cheese - can help to lower your risk of type 2 diabetes.

Ginger and garlic pills


Complementary cancer therapy pills 'do more harm than good'



Cancer patients should tell their doctors if they are taking herbal products because some of the ingredients could stop their treatment working, a cancer conference has heard.



Garlic, ginger and ginkgo pills, for example, can delay the healing of skin wounds when breast cancer spreads.

There was no evidence that herbal therapies or creams worked.

If in doubt, it was best not to take anything.

With a lot of unproven information available online and little reliable research into these products.

Therapies like yoga, mindfulness could have a positive impact on patients' quality of life.






Scrap 'quick-fix diets and tea-toxes'



If you have to lose some weight, avoid fad diets, because they don't work and can be harmful, says NHS England's top doctor.



Diet pills, "tea-toxes" and appetite suppressant products are no quick fix.

Products making this claim can have side-effects, including diarrhoea and heart issues, he warns.

Getting in shape safely takes time and requires eating sensibly, and exercise.


London ambulance

Party drips

Model Kendall Jenner was hospitalised following a bad reaction to a nutrient therapy IV drip, made up of saline solution, magnesium, calcium, B vitamins and vitamin C.

In extreme cases, regularly resorting to drips for hangover cures can cause nausea, liver damage, or death due to a toxic overdose of vitamin A.


The NHS has tips to help people achieve their New Year health goals:

How to spot a fad diet

The British Dietetic Association (BDA) advises people to stay away from diets that promote a magic ingredient or product to solve your weight problem, without you having to change your lifestyle in any way.

Any diet that promises rapid weight loss of more than 2lbs (0.9kg) of body fat a week is also dubious.

Fad diets often promote eating only one type of food or avoiding whole food groups.

  • And don't be fooled by celebrity endorsement - if it sounds too good to be true, the chances are it is.


The BDA says: "Eat a nutritionally balanced and varied diet, and be physically active."

The notion of "detox" is nonsense, says the BDA

Avoid alcohol and get more sleep, fresh air and exercise. 

The body has its own built-in system to detoxify and remove waste.

There are no pills or specific drinks, patches or lotions that can do a magic detoxifying job.


Woman drinking a cup of tea




Is it better to avoid milk?



A glass of milk on a blue background (Credit: Getty Images)

While calcium is good for bones............................. 

the evidence that consuming more calcium will prevent bone fractures is unclear. 


A number of studies have found no significant decrease in fracture risk from drinking milk.


Some research suggests that milk could actually contribute to fracture risk. 



One study in Sweden found that women who drank more than 200 ml of milk daily – had a higher risk of fractures.. 



The UK National Health Service recommends children between the age of one and three consume 250 ml milk for calcium. 



But when it comes to adults, research as to whether cow’s milk helps to keep our bones healthy is conflicting. 



“Only very high milk intake can be bad, but there’s no research suggesting that moderate intake is harmful,” he says. 



Soya milk is the best replacement for cow’s milk in terms of protein, as it’s the only one with comparable protein content



But the proteins in alternative drinks may not be “true” protein 



Whatever you decide, you won’t necessarily be missing out on vital nutrients if you eat a balanced diet. 


In most cases, a substitute, or substitutes, can be used in place of milk. 


It’s not necessary to drink milk. 

“It can be replaced with other products – there’s no single food that’s absolutely necessary to our health.” 


https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20191123-what-milk-is-best-cows-dairy-free-alternative






Watch out for sports drinks

Sports drinks contain salts and sugars. 

Many of them are packed with carbohydrates however – which means they also contain calories. 

Unless you have over burnt as professional atheletes, it’s wiser to choose simple water, or a zero-calorie electrolyte drink and avoid the hidden calories.

 

Walk the dogActivity doesn’t just mean the gym

Moving more doesn’t mean you need to join a gym. 

From walking up stairs to gardening, any activity that gets your heart rate going and your muscles moving will have an effect. 

 

Walk your way to weight loss

You don’t necessarily need to take up a high intensity Zumba class to lose weight either. 

Research shows that moderate exercise, such a walking, can be just as effective for weight loss since it doesn’t trigger the appetite hormones, which can lead to you reaching for the biscuit tin after a hard workout.



Move more, eat wisely

There’s little point in going to the gym five times a week if you’re going to undo it by eating a poor diet and consuming more calories than you’ve managed to burn. 

When it comes to food choices and losing weight, it’s a case of eating less and eating wisely. 

Alongside upping your activity levels, eating regular meals, avoiding hidden calories in alcohol, shunning saturated fats, increasing your intake of vegetables and snacking wisely will help you to shed those excess pounds. 





Remember why you’re doing it

To lose weight, you need to be in calorie deficit from your Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE). 

In plain English, the amount of calories you eat needs to be less than the amount of calories you burn each day. 

If you’re embarking on a fitness and weight loss programme, it’s worth remembering the basic principle of this energy balance equation.

To understand exactly why that extra gym class may help to remove whatever deposited quickly, but may be harmful as well.

So do it comfortably by eating sensibly, mindfully along with being very active and sleep well.

Also eliminating that daily bag of crisps at lunch can help you lose weight.





Image result for gym


Gym - Excess Training 'as bad as no exercise at all'



Training very hard may be as bad for you as not putting on your running shoes at all, a report in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology says.



Scientists studied more than 1,000 healthy joggers and non-joggers over a 12-year period.

The study suggests jogging at a steady pace for less than two and a half hours a week was best for health.

UK guidance says adults should aim for 150 minutes of exercise each week.



'Brisk walking'



"This study shows that you don't have to run marathons to keep your healthy.

"Light and moderate jogging was found to be more beneficial than being inactive or strenuous jogging.

"National guidelines recommend we do 150 minutes of moderate-intensity activity a week.

"It may sound like a lot, but even brisk walking is good exercise. 

And if you're bit of a couch potato, this is a good place to start."



Image result for gym


The dangerous downsides of a fitness addiction





Yet while physical activity and balanced eating are certainly important, the dark side to fitness obsession can pose a serious danger to the people striving for perfection. 


Orthorexia nervosa, or addiction to ‘healthy’ eating and over-exercise.

It is a medical condition rising in prominence alongside the #fitspiration Instagram fad. 


Untreated, it can lead to malnutrition and mental health complications, and those in the long recovery process are vulnerable to frequent relapses.


“Fitness shouldn’t mean having to work out every day or weighing your damn lettuce,” says Jen Brett, a recovering orthorexia survivor and fitness influencer.




Related image

Tips for longevity from the oldest people on Earth



The secret isn’t medication or specific foods, but a connection with their loved ones, enjoy going on walks and swapping stories with her friends........ 

Staying active through exercise and socialising.............and having a hobby which is driving force and source of passion.    
                                                                  

Residents of Okinawa, otherwise known as the 'island of the immortals’, are more likely to live to 100 than people in most other regions of Japan.................. 

This area in which some of the world’s oldest people live, and has been home to more than 1,000 centenarians throughout the past 40 years.





Vegan diet is much healthier.....




                                                        
The vegan diet could be one of the healthiest diets, because of higher in fruit, vegetables and legumes and the health benefits from this compensate anything else.

Eat plenty of fruit and vegetables with a variety of colours, nuts, wholegrains and beans and lentils, as well as chia, hemp and flax seeds, which contain omega 3.

“Typically, vegans smoke less, drink less alcohol and exercise more,” 

And lower intakes of animal products, scored better on health markers.

These lifestyle factors, which can also contribute to a lower risk of heart disease and mortality..




Staying indoors weakens your immune system



Sunlight and nature are great healers, and they also come for free.

Getting outdoors can also improve the quality of our sleep. 

Shut inside during lockdown could have disrupted our circadian rhythms 

Vitamin D enables the macrophages – a first line of defence against respiratory infections – to spew out an antimicrobial peptide called cathelicidin, killing bacteria and viruses directly. 


It also tweaks the activity of other immune cells, such as B and T cells, which orchestrate longer-term responses. 


People with low levels of vitamin D, especially NATURAL sunlight, are at greater risk of viral respiratory tract infections such as influenza.

Millions of people have not been able to get the exercise and vitamin D they would normally get while walking to work or school (Credit: Alamy)



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