Periostitis is a medical condition that involves inflammation, tenderness, and swelling around one or more bones. Most bones in the body are lined with a layer of connective tissue calledperiosteum, which provides protection and secures muscle fibers to bone tissue.
Periostitis occurs when a layer of periosteum is damaged due to:
chronic stressful acitivities
neoplasm / tissue growth.
Depending on the underlying cause, it can cause acute pain in an isolated area of the body or widespread, chronic aches.
The most common cause of periostitis is injury from direct trauma to a bone or overuse of a particular body part.
Athletes and casual runners are at risk of developing periosteum inflammation in their lower legs, a condition called shin splints.
The frequent pressure put on the shins from running, stopping, jumping, and turning gradually irritates the periosteum surrounding the bones, and in some cases, the connective tissue can tear.
Improper running technique can exacerbate the problem, and shin splints can become debilitating.
Inflammation can also arise as a complication of a acute or chronic infection, or an autoimmune disorder.
In an inherited condition called primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, the immune system releases chemicals that cause inflammatory responses in periosteum at many different bone sites, including the collarbone, femur, and humerus.
As a result, the connective tissue becomes inflamed and swollen. With the periosteum damaged, new bone forms underneath that causes painful protrusions and further irritates the connective tissue.
Leukemia, a blood and bone marrow cancer, may also cause this problem in the late stages of the cancer.
A medical professional can diagnose periostitis and look for underlying causes by asking about symptoms, evaluating the physical appearance of affected body parts, and taking X-rays of bones.
Blood tests may be performed if an autoimmune disorder or infection is suspected.
If diagnostic tests are inconclusive, a sample of bone and periosteum tissue might be collected and analyzed to check for signs of cancer.
Healthcare professionals usually focus treatment efforts on eliminating the underlying cause of symptoms.
In the case of shin splints or other injury-related forms, patients are usually instructed to get rest, ice their sore bones, and take anti-inflammatory medications.
The shins usually start feeling better after several weeks of rest, and an individual can gradually increase his or her activity level to rebuild strength.
One or more of the following treatments may be used:
It is important to rest to allow the condition to settle.
Sometimes a splint, firm bandage or brace is put on a wrist if this is the area affected. This enforces your hand and wrist to stay in the same position for a time to allow rest of the affected tendon.
Ice packs..... over the affected area may ease swelling and pain.
A simple ice pack can be made by wrapping a pack of frozen peas in a tea towel. Apply it to the affected area for 10 minutes twice a day.
Anti-inflammatory painkillers..... are often prescribed (for example, ibuprofen).
These ease pain and reduce inflammation. However, as discussed above, inflammation may not be the main problem in tendonitis and tenosynovitis. However, they will provide pain relief. Some anti-inflammatory painkillers also come as creams or gels which you can rub over the painful area. These tend to produce fewer side-effects than those taken by mouth. There are various brands which you can buy, or get on prescription. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice.
Other painkillers. If you cannot take anti-inflammatory painkillers, other painkillers such as paracetamol, with or without codeine added, may be helpful.
Physiotherapy exercises... advised.
A target anti-inflammatory injection...... into the affected area may be given if the above measures do not work. Steroid injections may be helpful in easing pain in the short-term but pain tends to come back in many people.
Surgical release of a tendon is rarely needed.
Antibiotics, antivirals, or immunosuppressant drugs may be needed to treat other causes. Surgery to remove or repair damaged tissue may be necessary if the condition causes debilitating pain or bone fractures.
Healthy diet and lifestyle for prevention.....
Diet - Vitamins, minerals, calcium should be obtained from natural dietary resources and
not by 'vitamin tablets/capsules' which can increase your risk of 'medicinal side-effects'.
Fruits, Salads, green vegetables/leaves, Sprouts -250 grammes
Curd/Yoghurt -250 grammes,
Lemon juice with little salt/sugar.
Water -5-6 lit per day or more, daily slow sustained yoga type physiotherapy exercises as given in website is essential for good health of bones and body.
Daily brisk/speed walking for 1 hour, getting enough vitamin D from your diet, sunlight will decrease your risk.
Cycling outdoors and non-gym outdoor exercises such as brisk walking, using stairs at home and office, walk at work bring overall improvement in health, well being besides controlling and curing many diseases such as Hypertension, diabetes, depression, cancer, osteoporosis, arthritis, muscular pains and joint pains.
Physical activity. Not exercising and being inactive or staying in bed for long periods can increase your risk.
Smoking. Smokers harm their blood circulation, damage all tissues in body by free radicals of smoke and absorb less calcium from their diets.
Medications. Some commonly used medicines can cause loss of bone mass. These include steroids used to control arthritis and asthma; some drugs used to treat seizures; some cancer drugs; and, too much thyroid hormone.
Athletes risking their health by 'under-fuelling'
Endurance athletes could risk their long-term health, stress fractures by under-fuelling and over-training, an expert has warned.
Distance runner has not had a period in more years and was diagnosed with Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (Red-S) and osteoporosis in her late 20s.
Red-S can "affect anybody who is very physically active and takes their sport seriously".
Red-S can affect both male and female athletes and became a recognised condition in 2014.
There have been few studies into the prevalence of the condition, but it is understood to be most common in sports such as athletics, cycling and dancing, where being light could make a significant difference to performance.
The condition can cause a range of health problems, like drop in hormone levels, deterioration in bone density, excess drop in metabolic rate and mental health problems.